The Difference Between a Startup and a Small Business

By

startup vs. small business image

If you work in the technology industry, or live in a tech hub such as Silicon Valley, Hong Kong, or New York —it’s likely that you or someone you know is in the process of conceptualizing or even launching his or her own startup.

A startup is often misunderstood for simply a small new business. The truth is, there is significant difference between the two.

What is a startup?

For years, investors treated startups as smaller versions of large companies; this was problematic because there is a vast ideological (and organizational) difference between a startup, small business, and large corporation, which necessitates different funding strategies and KPIs.

According to serial entrepreneur and Silicon Valley legend Steve Blank, a startup is a “temporary organization designed to search for a repeatable and scalable business model.” A startup, which he argues in the context of the tech industry should be short for “scalable startup,” which searches to not only prove their business model, but to do so quickly, in a way that will have a significant impact on the current market. This brings us to our first major difference between the startup and the small business.

A “Scalable” Startup Has The Intent To Become A Large Company

As Blank describes it, a scalable startup founder doesn’t just want to be her own boss; she wants to take over the universe. From day one her intent is to grow her startup into a large, disruptive company. She believes that she has come across the next “big idea,” that will shake up the industry, take customers from existing companies, or even create a new market.

This stands is in stark contrast with the definition of a small business, which the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) describes as “independently owned and operated, organized for profit, and not dominant in its field.”

Therefore, the driving force behind the two business models is different: The Intent of the startup founder is to disrupt the market with a scalable and impactful business model; whereas the intent of the small business owner is to be her own boss and secure a place in the local market.

To be sure, the latter is the prevailing model of entrepreneurship in the United States: grocery stores, delis, hair salons, plumbers, electricians, etc. and their contribution to the local economy cannot be overstated. However, for better or for worse, the ultimate motivation behind a small business is fundamentally different from that of scalable startup.

A Startup Is Temporary

The organizational function of the startup is to search for a repeatable and scalable business model. According to Blank, this means that a startup founder has three main functions:

  1. To provide a vision of a product with a set of features
  2. To create a series of hypotheses about all the pieces of the business model: Who are the customers? What are the distributions channels? How do we build and finance the company, etc.
  3. To quickly validate whether the model is correct by seeing if customers behave as your model predicts (which he admits they rarely do).

Given this definition, it stands that once a business model has been proven the function of the organization must shift to produce outcomes and execute said model; in many cases removing the agility and innovation that once existed in the early days of the business.

A Startup Is Funded Differently

While both a startup and small business will likely start with funding from the founder’s savings, friends and family, or a bank loan; if a startup is successful, it will receive additional series of funding from angel investors, venture capitalist, and eventually, an initial public offering (IPO). With each series of funding, the startup founder’s equity is eroded, while ownership of the company diversifies.

Eventually, a startup may cease to exist as an independent entity via a merger or acquisition. To a small business owner, relinquishing control would defeat the purpose of running their own business; however, for the startup it may be necessary to scale growth.

Although the startup founder and small business owner are both entrepreneurs; the intent, primary function, and funding of their respective business model’s are radically different. Watch Steve Blank describe the difference further in the video below.

Learn how to to explore your own ideas at General Assembly.

Get the skills you need for startup careers