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Front-End Web Developer Salaries


Featuring Insights From Pedro Martin & Matt Studdert

Read: 4 Minutes

Maybe you’re curious about becoming a front-end web developer but want to know what you’re in for before making the leap. Or perhaps you’re weighing whether it would be financially worthwhile to invest the time and money in a career switch. You probably already know that front-end web development is one of the fastest-growing fields out there. So if you want to hear from the insiders why everyone seems to be clamoring to hire this role, read on. Knowledge is power.

We asked our resident experts what it takes to become a star front-end web developer (FEWD). Pedro Martin is a software engineer at Red Badger, and Matt Studdert is the founder of Frontend Mentor. Both are also GA instructors — and both of their answers were surprising.

Martin cites empathy as being the number one characteristic needed in FEWD, and explained that the role demands you consider every decision you make from your user’s perspective.

“You must understand the diversity of all humans consuming the content, so you can build a human-centric solution with accessibility as the core,” he says. “You must understand the intention of the client and adapt or influence the content accordingly. And you must understand that delivering software based on the web is a team effort.“

Similarly, Studdert claims emotional intelligence is most important since a developer’s process of problem-solving is often trial-and-error.

“Starting your journey in web development is to go from error to error, from problem to problem. So at the beginning of your journey, you should be resilient and emotionally intelligent enough to not get frustrated.” He adds, “Most of us have been there, and we can relate to that struggle.”

So about that problem-solving. Just how advanced do you have to be at writing code? To make it as a FEWD, do you have to be a pro at programming?

Becoming adept at code is an ongoing process, but think of it as lifelong learning. You’ll become better and better over time. Of course, you want prospective employers to be impressed with your skill set, so make sure you have these three languages on your C.V. or resume: HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. Depending on your area of expertise, your proficiencies among the programming languages will adjust.

For example, Studdert explains, “If you’re an accessibility-focused developer, HTML might be the most used. For styling-focused developers, CSS. For front-end developers focused primarily on interactivity or building modern-day web applications, JavaScript might be the language you work with the most.”

If you can improve your problem-solving skills and your coding, it will help you massively as a developer. Boosting your value in today’s economy ultimately gives you more freedom, more choices, and more money. (More on that later.)

But writing code isn’t all there is to it. Collaboration is crucial. “As a front-end developer, you’ll be working mainly with UI and UX designers to improve the visual side of the site. You’ll also be communicating with back-end developers on how to integrate with the API. Other team members, like product managers, project managers, and product owners, will be people who you’ll be talking to throughout each week. And if you’re working at an agency, you may also be in meetings with the client and need to present work to them.”

One of the great things about becoming a FEWD is that you can take your skills almost anywhere. While salaries vary widely from country to country, even region to region, one thing is clear: developers are in demand.

“The demand for programmers with all levels of experience is not being matched by the supply,” says Martin. “Here in London, you can start at £30,000, and from there, the sky’s the limit. When I started 6 years ago, it was £24,000, so in only 6 years we have an increase of 25% on the starting salary.”

The advantages of working on staff are many — especially for those just starting out. Here in the U.S., salaries for front-end web developers range from $80K to $115K, according to Glassdoor, though these amounts can vary by geographic location and from country to country.

“Working within a team is especially crucial for new developers, as it’s critical you learn good practices and build up your experience in a professional setting,” says Studdert. Not to mention more stability and the benefits that come with working for a company.

The usual downsides of going freelance apply here, too, like less consistent workflow, having to do business management work like accounting, and time spent chasing clients. But the freedom to decide when, where, and how you want to work can be priceless. As a freelancer, you can charge higher wages and actually gross more than if you were working for somebody else.

In this career path, there is ample room for advancement. As a developer in a large organization, you can advance from entry level to senior to lead, and get salary increases along the way. “Many companies offer career progression paths depending on whether you want to focus on writing code or you prefer to move into more management-focused roles,” says Studdert. “Being a front-end developer can also lead to hybrid responsibilities if it’s something you’re interested in. For example, you could become a full-stack developer and work with back-end code as well. Or you could become a UX engineer and blend front-end work with UX design.”

Whether you join a large firm or become an independent contractor, there are plenty of opportunities to create the career you want. The future is bright for front-end web developers

Explore Front-End Web Development at GA

Want to learn more about Pedro?

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Visual Designer Salaries


Featuring Insights From Jason Early

Read: 4 Minutes

Do you see a simple interface as a thing of beauty? Do you look at a design problem like an unfinished work of art? Does reducing user friction give you a sense that all is right in the world? If you answered yes to all of the above, then the role of visual designer is for you.

Visual designers, sometimes called digital designers, are primarily focused on visual communication and take a big-picture approach. Not to be confused with graphic designers, who use design elements like typeface and color to create a product, and may be more limited in scope, visual designers have a broader reach, working across platforms to build a brand identity’s look and feel in a more holistic way.

The visual designer is in a unique position of strength. A problem-solver at heart, the visual designer takes input from a portfolio of stakeholders and uses digital design tools to achieve business goals with a functionally elegant finished product.

There’s never been a better time to join the ranks of designers working in the digital world. The job outlook is decidedly rosy, with opportunities projected to grow much faster than other occupations thanks in part to the pandemic-related surge in mobile and eCommerce. So whether you’re looking to up your game (and your job title), make a career switch, or are just starting out, it literally pays to know what skills are needed as a visual designer.

According to Jason Early, a distinguished faculty member at GA and a 20-year design professional, what it takes to be a successful visual designer has less to do with design and more to do with ingenuity. “Empathy, inquisitiveness, and a desire to learn and solve problems are the most important qualities for a designer to have. Your job is to help address the challenges of an audience.”

But putting those high-minded qualities to work in today’s competitive digital economy often requires fluency with the bottom line. “As a designer, you are always selling to someone,” says Early. “Whether it’s trying to get buy-in from your team on a design direction, project approval from a stakeholder, or an audience to try your product, communication is key. It’s important to understand the business side of the industry you are in. You may be a designer, but your work provides value to the business.”

Early teaches our User Experience Design Immersive, a deep dive into the design discipline that serves as a career launching pad for students who can make the full-time commitment. In this Immersive, he covers the entire design process and offers opportunities to apply lessons to IRL projects. For those looking to gain a competitive edge in their existing jobs, part-time courses can give structure and background to the design process and help formalize a process that many have already been practicing on their own. Even better? Most courses are available online.

So what does a visual designer do all day? Ask five designers what their day looks like, and you’ll get five different answers. That’s in large part because today’s digital economy is fast-moving and ever-evolving — and the reason the field attracts an adventurous talent pool.

As a visual design consultant, Early mostly sets his own schedule, structuring his time around current projects and clients. “My day generally starts with the most important tasks like reviewing project updates, addressing feedback, code reviews — anything to unblock progress. Next, I’ll work on production iterations and improvements, then do email and communication check-ins. Afternoons are usually open for whatever needs my attention. I may be reviewing analytics, generating performance reports for clients, developing new client leads, reviewing my own marketing efforts, or spending time learning about a new tool that I may need for a project.” He adds, “Remember, I’m an independent. In-house roles can look dramatically different.”

Keep in mind that design departments can be staffed differently from company to company, with job titles remaining mostly consistent. A visual designer is tasked with the visual communication of the design, including the look and aesthetic of the product and making sure the use of color, typography, imagery, and layout are working together to satisfy a goal. A user experience designer, on the other hand, is focused on the overall experience of a design, taking into consideration the understanding of an audience and creating a strategic approach to address any challenges the user may face. More traditional job titles such as graphic designer and art director are holding fast, as long as they evolve to meet the needs of the digital economy.

“An art director is a leadership role and manages a team of designers through a project,” explains Early. “The design director is often the next level of leadership up from art director. They are responsible for overseeing the entire design team. A chief creative officer is a C-suite level of leadership for the design team in an organization. They have the widest scope of responsibility as they oversee anything creative in an entire organization, such as product, marketing, or software.” This is just one example of how a visual design department in a large company may be structured.

And what about compensation? What can you expect to earn from a visual designer salary? “This will depend on your market, but the average salary range in the U.S. is around $75K to $140K, according to Glassdoor. This, of course, depends on candidate experience, regional market, industry, and the ability to negotiate. Plus, there can be a difference in salary if you work at an agency vs. independently. Agencies can offer a lower wage and longer hours, but there can be more opportunity to work your way up to higher wages. As an independent, I set a project rate based on the goals the client is trying to reach.”

Early advises working in a team with well-established leadership if you’re looking to fast-track your career. Agencies are great for this as they usually have a well-defined hierarchy. For emerging designers, joining a firm where you will be part of a team of designers offers the most robust opportunities to learn on the job.

If you choose to strike out on your own as an independent designer, it’s a career path that can pay off in many ways. “The benefits of starting your own business are many, including flexibility of time and potentially higher pay.”

Explore Visual Design at GA

Want to learn more about Jason?

Graphic Designer Salaries


Featuring Insights From Jason Early

Read: 3 Minutes

Are you a graphic designer intimidated by the prospect of transitioning to digital design work? Are you concerned with your ability to learn new tools and unfamiliar terminology? Those fears are normal and all too common for creative professionals, but the facts — and figures — say otherwise. Core design skills are still core design skills, regardless of the medium. Truthfully, the tech industry needs people just like you.

Graphic design was originally established to meet the needs of print, with a focus on layout and typography, Bridging the gap to digital requires an understanding of how users interact with your product. Read on to find out why your experience is a valuable commodity in today’s job market, no matter what you might assume. 

Let’s begin with salary. While the median salary for a graphic designer is $55K, tech- and leadership-driven roles that require similar skills like art director, web designer, or product designer command higher salaries. For example, a web designer just starting out can earn $65K, with a range of up to $140K in senior managerial roles. Even better, stretching your design skill set for positions like user experience (UX) designer can bring your starting salary up to $100K, with more sizable gains as you advance and accrue experience. Salary information according to Glassdoor. Amounts will vary by geographic location and from country to country.

The big question: how do you supercharge your design skills in a way that positions you to crush the job market?

There are practical and relevant ways to supplement your graphic design skills — and skyrocket your salary. Consider our UX Design Immersive (UXDI), a full-time bootcamp that’s available online and designed to launch you into a high-growth, high-paying tech career. “My favorite course to teach is UXDI,” says one of our distinguished faculty members,Jason Early. “I have a lot of time to focus on the students and help them achieve their individual goals. By the time we’ve completed a course, they’re confident and able to start applying what they have learned out in the world.”

Look no further for an inspiring success story. Early started his career as a graphic designer and is a living case study on pushing design skills past traditional boundaries to meet new challenges.

“I have a traditional university training in graphic design and have expanded that into web design, front-end development, and product design over the years. What first attracted me to the design industry was my interest in making things. I wanted to understand how products get made. So I started learning about the different areas that lead into product development. Graphic design taught me visual communication, front-end development taught me digital production, product design taught me how to combine those skills, and an understanding of business taught me how to produce product value.”

Our Immersive graduates emerge equipped with the new skills they need to navigate a career transition, but what about the prior work experience they bring to the new role? Are those traditional design skills transferable?

“Absolutely,” says Early. “They are already going to be familiar with the design process. While graphic design is focused more on visual communication, UX design is more strategic and focused on behavior. The process is the same: research, analysis, exploration, refinement, deployment. The only difference is the result.”

Of course, the best perk of a GA Immersive is that you’ll gain familiarity with the top employers out there, including who is hiring and how to connect to hiring managers, plus the invaluable resource of networking with world-class faculty and a group of like-minded, forward-thinking students (and future colleagues + friends).

Now an independent design consultant with 20 years experience, Early advises those considering a career change to start by thinking about the challenges encountered every day, their causes, and what can be done to address them. “Now, you are beginning to think like a designer,” he says.

A growth mindset and a willingness to learn go a long way. Today’s designers have more tools at their disposal than ever, with a steady influx of new software designed to make the job easier.

“Tools tend to vary by the team and company,” says Early. “I see Figma being adopted more and more by designers. It’s great for remote collaborative design production. Aside from that, being familiar with analytics software and usability testing software is important. Google Analytics and Usertesting are two of the most commonly used, but there are others in the market as well.”

Adapting to innovations is a win-win for all designers. Your work becomes more efficient, your proficiency increases, and your role as a designer becomes even more valuable — and diverse.

Explore Visual Design at GA

Want to learn more about Jason?

Digital Marketing Salaries


Featuring Insights From Rachel Denton

Read: 2 Minutes

Are you curious, adaptable, and strategic? Creative, but not afraid to dive into the numbers now and then? These qualities will take you far in a digital marketing career. Digital marketing spans so many areas of expertise — there’s a perfect job for practically everyone with a problem-solving mindset. Armed with the skills you need to succeed, you’ll have the confidence to lock in a job with plenty of growth potential and a commensurate salary… every step of the way.

Rachel Denton, a digital marketing specialist, and one of our Austin campus instructors, shares her hardwon insights on the industry. Denton started her career as an engineer but was ultimately drawn to marketing because she could use her analytical mindset along with her creativity in a way that played up the strengths of each. It’s a balance she finds extremely rewarding and enthusiastically shares with her students. In her Email Marketing Essentials and Data Analytics courses, she relishes seeing the light bulb moments when students understand a new marketing concept or figure out a data-based strategy for the first time.

“Building a strong foundation is paramount. That means understanding the digital marketing channels and how to create, execute, measure, and optimize digital marketing campaigns. Once students understand these, there are so many directions they can go in the field of digital marketing. It really depends on their passions and interests.”

Let’s break out the individual roles within the field of digital marketing and what you can expect to earn.

Digital Marketing roles include those focused on specific channels such as social media manager, email marketing manager, content marketing manager, paid search manager, SEO manager, and marketing automation manager. Salaries for these roles fall in the range of $70K to $90K, depending on experience. Though they are often entry-point hires at smaller companies, candidates with relevant education and proven tech skill proficiencies have a clear advantage. Be ready to hit the ground running.

Higher-level roles in digital marketing are responsible for overseeing campaigns and managing teams of various sizes. These titles and salary ranges include digital marketing manager, $85K to $120K; digital marketing director, $120K to $160K; VP of marketing, $160K to $220K; and chief marketing officer (CMO), $200K to $500K or more — with the lucky few making millions per year. Compensation packages often include an incentivized bonus, whether based on individual performance, company performance, or both. Additional benefits like stock options or matching retirement funds may be on offer and often negotiable. Salary information is sourced from Glassdoor, but keep in mind that these numbers can vary by geographic location and from country to country.

Digital marketing is clearly a field with lots of room for advancement. If you want to fast-track your career, check out Denton’s Digital Marketing Immersive, a bootcamp experience for students of all levels. Or learn how to run a successful campaign for your small business with Yelp + GA: Lean Marketing for Startups and Small Businesses.

Still deciding? Take the first step and register for her free Intro to Digital Marketing Live Online.

Explore Digital Marketing at GA

Want to learn more about Rachel?

Product Manager Salaries & Pro Tips


An Interview with product management veteran John Bartlett

Read: 3 Minutes

Working as a product manager in tech can be an exciting career. But if doing the same thing day after day is your idea of job fulfillment, look elsewhere. Being a product manager requires flexibility, agility, and thinking on your feet because reacting and responding to the shifting needs of the business is exactly what you’ll do. Taking products over the finish line, often in a leadership capacity and as part of a team of designers and developers, has huge rewards. It’s a sense of accomplishment like no other, and it’s why many product managers report high job satisfaction. To get a sense of what working as a product manager is like, we called on John Bartlett, a product management expert who has been bringing products to market for over 20 years. He weighs in on how to pursue a career in product development, the job outlook for product managers, the average salary, and the industry tips he has shared with hundreds of aspiring mentees.

Let’s go back to basics. What initially inspired you to get into product management?

JB: I got into product management the way many people do — by accident. I was at a startup and there wasn’t anyone doing “PM stuff” so I just jumped in and started doing it. After a while, I realized I needed more formal training so I went to work for a larger company that trained their product managers to be focused on the customer. From then on I was hooked, and grew my career working for some very successful companies. 

For someone not familiar with the product manager role, can you explain what they do?

JB: The primary role of the product manager is to understand customer problems and to work with a team of designers and developers to help create solutions to those problems. The role involves wearing many hats, along with the ability to juggle multiple priorities and stakeholders, make good decisions for your company and customers, and work hard to solve customer problems. Wherever possible, you should be using data to make those decisions. And, oh yeah, make sure your products are making money for your company!

Where are some of the places a product manager works?

JB: In the tech sector, at companies that build software and hardware products. Or in other sectors like retail — anywhere products and services are being sold online (eCommerce, FinTech, review sites). The PM role is also becoming more popular in IT organizations as they are thinking more about products, rather than projects, for their internal customers. Project managers also exist in other industries outside of tech in everything from insurance products to tractors.

What are some of the programs or software tools that product managers use?

JB:  Most use standard office products — MS or Google spreadsheets, presentations, etc. Depending on the role, they may use some prototyping tools like Sketch or Balsamiq. Jira is very popular as a tool for tracking development tasks. Though not designed for PMs, they use it to work with their development teams. Aha and Productboard are two products that are designed for PMs to use for product planning, though usage is not widespread. There are also analytical tools like Google Analytics, Tableau, or Pendo that help to understand how products are being used. SQL can be helpful, as well. 

What kind of educational background does someone looking to get into product management need?

JB: You don’t need a tech background to be a product manager unless you’re working on very technical products. A bachelor’s degree is usually required. If your degree is in business, liberal arts, or one where you’ve had to do a lot of writing, even better. A graduate degree like an MBA, while not required, is a plus. What’s important for product managers is the willingness to learn about the technology that’s used in building their products so they can better communicate with their development teams.

What is the typical product manager starting salary?

JB: According to Glassdoor, the average base pay for a product manager is $110,500. Associate product managers can start at around $60K–$70K, with a senior product manager salary in the $100K–$150K range. You’ll find that a product manager’s salary can range widely, depending on the company. Product managers at tech companies are highly valued and can skew higher, with a salary range up to $175K.

Where should I start if I want to make a career switch to becoming a product manager?

JB: If you’re working in a company with product managers, make sure to connect with them and ask them lots of questions about the role. If it’s a career that you think you’d like to pursue, sign up for my product management course at GA, where you can learn the most important skills and best practices. I wish there was a program like this available when I was starting out! The classes are made up of students either thinking about a career change, recently in a PM role, or more experienced PMs looking to uplevel their skills. What’s great is that the class is structured to accommodate all of those levels, so I can work with less-experienced students on fundamentals and experienced students on more advanced topics. I also learn so much from the students since they come from a wide range of backgrounds and experiences. 

Explore Product Management at GA

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22 LinkedIn Profile Tips


Featuring Tips From John Bartlett, Rachel Denton, Jason Early, Pedro Martin, & Matt Studdert

Read: 3 Minutes

Looking for ways to make your LinkedIn profile stand out? Trying to figure out how to showcase your personal brand on LinkedIn in a way that makes you unique? Read on for tips and advice from the experts on how to improve your profile (and get the job of your dreams).

Pedro Martin, GA Distinguished Faculty Member & Software Engineer at Red Badger

1. Don’t recreate your resume. Most profiles just list skills and previous jobs. If you can tell a story, you’ll stand out to employers.

2. Be sure to demonstrate your work as part of a team.

3. If your portfolio showcases a common theme, recruiters are more likely to take notice. 

Matt Studdert, Professional Developer & Founder of Frontend Mentor

4. Be concise and to the point with your skills. A shorter list of technologies you know well is much better than a long list of technologies you hardly understand.

5. Rewrite your responsibilities to focus on transferable skills. For example, if you presented in front of clients as a developer but want to make a career change to a UX designer, highlight that you’re comfortable talking to and in front of key stakeholders.

6. Get references from past colleagues and bosses. These will highlight your personality and work ethic from a different perspective.

7. Be sure to have multiple people proofread your profile. As people will be reading your profile, demonstrating proficient written communication is key.

8. Coming across as driven, interested, and interesting are great ways to grab attention and show your individuality. Mention interests outside of work or write articles on LinkedIn.

9. The best way to show a portfolio is by building your own website. Short of that, I recommend finding a template or designing and recreating one yourself.

10. Include a profile picture, a brief description of your interests (both relevant to your field and not), your skills and preferred tools, and a showcase of projects you’ve built or contributed to. 

Rachel Denton, Senior Program Manager at Atlassian & GA Instructor Since 2016

11. Start with a strong profile picture coupled with a strong summary at the top that captures your skill sets, your experience, and the essence of who you are.

12. Having a few recommendations from colleagues over the course of your career is a great bonus.

Jason Early, Independent UX Consultant & GA Instructor

13. Use LinkedIn as a resource to help build a client base and find new projects. Reach out directly to learn more about their needs.

14. Comment on posts, and contribute your own commentary to the posts you share. Your profile stands out by you being recognized and involved.

15. As an employer, I look for involvement. Does the applicant have a perspective on the industry? Are they sharing it well? Are they involved in groups? It’s a great way to evaluate how they communicate. 

16. Your profile should show that you are moving forward professionally. How you do that can vary but show that you’re doing something.

17. If I’m looking at a designer’s profile, can I get a sense of personality from it? Are they making it reflect themselves? How are they using it as a tool?

18. If you are focusing on visual design, then your portfolio should be mostly visual with explanations as to why the entries look the way they do. If you are focusing on user experience design, then your entries should be written out, with images to support the strategy.

19. Have a system for easily updating your portfolio so it can be customized to your audience.   

John Bartlett, 20-year Project Manager & Mentor to Hundreds of Aspiring Entrepreneurs

20. What stands out the most on someone’s LinkedIn profile is seeing the products they’ve worked on and their role in that success.

21. If you’ve built a product that you can show in a portfolio, that is ideal. If not, show your final project presentation.

22. Remember to save something for the interview. Most hiring managers are interested in your thinking so showing your best work in person lets you walk them through it. 

Explore Our Upcoming Career Development Workshops

Four Types of IT Jobs


Featuring Insights From Rachel Denton, Pedro Martin, & Matt Studdert

IT jobs have a secret: They’re some of the most collaborative and social jobs you can have. Developers work with designers. Product managers team up with data scientists. Data scientists advise marketers and vice versa. In the fast-moving tech industry, no one can afford to be in a silo or work strictly solo.

But which IT role is best suited to your strengths? Which jobs are poised for the most growth? Should you go for a high-paying and demanding position? Or one in which you set your own hours and can take time to explore your creativity? The tech world is expansive enough to include all of these things and more. According to employers, communication and problem-solving skills are the most important qualities to make you successful in an IT career.

More good news: Employers aren’t looking for candidates with a templated background. Computer science degrees are actually becoming very rare in the industry. Successful job seekers come from a broad range of backgrounds, including medicine, education, archaeology, construction, and more. The tech industry needs people at all levels, and in some cases, may not require a bachelor’s degree. It’s all about the skill set, and plenty of companies hire people directly from a bootcamp.

At present, the demand to fill jobs in these fields outpaces the supply of candidates worldwide. It’s a very good time to be looking.

1. Developer

The role of a front-end web developer is to build accessible, responsive, and performing interfaces based on a design and a specification, using web technologies like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript. But the image of the coder working alone all day couldn’t be further from the truth. Delivering software based on the web is a team effort. The developer’s role is integral to building the product, but they work alongside colleagues in other disciplines and will do well to embrace their input.

“Good companies understand that the software delivery process is a team effort,” says Pedro Martin, software engineer and GA instructor. “Developers work with user experience designers, user interface designers, content designers, data analysts, quality assurance developers, delivery leads, and product owners. Each one influences the other’s work, thereby expanding the experience of delivering features.”

Communication is key. “Being able to communicate your ideas and your work to other team members is a key skill that often flies under the radar,” says Matt Studdert, founder of Frontend Mentor.

Front-end web developers can choose from a broad range of places to work, pretty much at any company with a presence on the internet. This is just one of the perks of the job. “If you like music, you could work at Spotify or another music service,” says Studdert. “If you’re passionate about plants, you could work at Patch Plants. Your skills will follow you from industry to industry.”

Unsure where to start? Taking our coding course can get you fluent enough in HTML or CSS so that you can begin using them to create your own projects and see where that leads. You can quickly find a passion to develop into a career. In our 2-hour Understanding the Stack workshop, “people come in with absolutely no understanding and learn so much within such a short timeframe.” Another option is to go all-in with a full-time bootcamp. Coding Immersive graduates leave prepared to jump right into their new developer job.

2. Data Scientist

Data science is having an increasing influence on every company’s marketing plan. There has been a hiring boom in recent years as corporate leaders are eager to harness the power of data for their bottom line. They are fast becoming key partners on every digital marketing team. For that reason, data science is one of the fastest-growing fields.

A data scientist utilizes processes and algorithms to yield insights from large data sets. In Rachel Denton’s Data Analytics course here at GA, the goal is for students to learn how to use data to solve complex business problems. “Data is so important in the world of digital marketing,“ she says. “I am seeing more and more data used alongside digital marketing as technology gets increasingly sophisticated.”

3. Digital Marketer

Digital marketing is a fast-growing field where you can use your skills to excel, whether they are focused on design, data, or strategy. More diverse roles get pulled into digital marketing by the day as the potential value of their contributions is recognized. Practically every tech professional has a place in this burgeoning field.

4. Product Manager

A product manager is integral to helping teams prioritize. They will typically be in charge of what’s getting done next and why. Organization is key in this role. Product managers must be a manager of people. They communicate with developers, designers, and marketers to determine how much time and effort goes into every project. Digital product teams are often quite small, encompassing 8 to 12 people of different disciplines.

All of these jobs have the advantage of being able to work from practically anywhere. Tech workers are essential and can transition seamlessly to an all-remote world. Their work is making our global economy thrive, now more than ever.

Explore Our Upcoming Career Development Workshops

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What Is Content Marketing?


Featuring Insights From Rachel Denton

Read: 4 Minutes

How is content marketing different from all the other types of marketing? It helps to think of content marketing as a smarter, more surgical discipline than traditional marketing. Traditional marketers lacked nuanced tools, so they just threw everything up against the wall and hoped something would stick. That approach basically amounted to using a blunt object instead of a scalpel to perform surgery. No matter how brilliant the campaign, if it never reached the right audience, it could only be so effective.

Content marketing is defined as the creation and distribution of valuable, informative content with the intention to attract, engage, and maintain a targeted audience. In essence, it matches your customer with the product or service they need before they go out and start looking around, even sometimes before they know they need it. 

“Content marketing should provide helpful information to audiences that can solve problems and address pain points,” says Rachel Denton, distinguished faculty member at GA. “It attracts audiences to informative content, whereas traditional marketing is more pushy in nature, forcing products and services on audiences.”

What is the role of the content marketer?

Content marketing evolved with today’s lush information landscape, making it closer to a science than an art. From social media to paid search, there are more ways than ever before for marketers to interact with an audience. Content marketers use data and other tools to target their audience and match them with content that helps inform their decisions. In this way, content marketers can have more reach and make a far greater impact. The better they can identify, locate and target their audience, the more bang they get for the buck.

Content creation is commonly the purview of a creative team of designers, writers, and developers. This talent may be in-house or contracted out, depending on the organization. The types of content a content marketer may use includes emails, display ads, blog posts, whitepapers, videos, infographics, and longer-form content such as eBooks and webinars.

Quality content comes in many forms but has one thing in common: It tells stories and makes meaningful connections with an audience. While the immediate goal is for content to stimulate demand, the larger, more holistic goal is all about being remembered by your audience during the decision-making process. Quality content inspires action and engagement. Poor quality content is often purely promotional, and any content created without the audience in mind is one of the fastest ways to weaken a brand.

Content marketers drive brand awareness. They make sure that content reaches the right eyes and ears — and they get results that can be measured. Executives focused on the power of branding to deliver business objectives recognize the value of a good content marketing strategy and a good content marketer.

What is content marketing strategy?

A content marketing strategy can be simple or complex. Even a marketing strategy involving just one or two channels needs a good amount of back-end preparation to ensure the strategy is successful. One example of a simple marketing strategy would be using blog articles and social media posts to share valuable information with your audience in a consistent and engaging way. An example of a more complex content strategy might involve bringing in an influencer or leveraging multiple channels at once to yield a truly integrated campaign where all aspects of paid, owned, and earned media come together.

What does good content marketing look like?

A smart content marketing strategy that’s thoughtfully executed can be a real game-changer. It can catapult a brand into the public consciousness in profound ways and go beyond the borders of a transactional customer relationship.

“The #LikeAGirl campaign from Always was a campaign that took a brand associated with periods and sanitary pads and went to a whole other level of women empowerment,” Denton says.

The campaign highlights included video on YouTube and Facebook, influencers and paid ads, Twitter posts asking women to tweet amazing things they do #LikeAGirl and a 60-second spot that aired during the Superbowl. The results were astounding. The brand garnered over 90 million views for a video that went viral globally, and social media numbers were off the charts. Most significant, Always received a huge lift in brand preference from a 50% growth in purchasers who claimed intent. Incredibly, almost 70% of survey respondents said that “the video changed my perception of the phrase ‘like a girl.’”

That’s proof that a truly integrated campaign can make meaningful connections that have lasting and profound impact.

What is the role of data in content marketing?

The sheer amount of data available has enabled content marketing to be more precise than ever. Watch this video to learn more about valuable sources of data and how to use them in a content marketing strategy:

Knowing how to interpret and use data ensures that you are putting out the right campaign at the right time. “Data is so important in the world of digital marketing,” says Denton. “As most everything is trackable these days, those that aren’t on top of measuring the performance of their campaigns are going to be left behind. Start with clear, measurable objectives from the onset and then test, test, test. Use your findings to optimize the campaign. Leverage in-app and web analytics such as Google Analytics to help you on your way.”

How does content marketing work together with digital marketing?

In industry parlance, content marketing lives under the digital marketing umbrella. It is not uncommon for a digital marketing strategy to start with a content marketing strategy.

“With a clear vision for a content marketing strategy and a well-defined audience, businesses can make smart decisions about how to leverage digital marketing channels to share out that content,” explains Denton. “That’s what you call a strong, integrated digital marketing strategy.” 

When content marketing and digital marketing work together on a holistic approach, campaigns achieve real, measurable success.

Ready to learn more about how content marketing can transform your business? Sign up for a free Intro to Digital Marketing Live Online.

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General Assembly Expands to 10 New Online Communities


General Assembly is committed to expanding access to in-demand digital skills to create more equitable tech talent ecosystems in every city we serve. Today, we are excited to deliver on that promise with 10 new online communities in Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Portland, Sacramento, and San Jose. With these new additions, we’re proud to now support students and hiring partners in a total of 49 cities online and in-person across the globe. 

Even before the pandemic ushered in a new era of remote work and learning, our team has been exploring new ways to bring GA’s in-demand skills training beyond the four walls of our physical classrooms. Since our switch to fully remote courses last year, GA classes have actually become more popular than ever before, and over 1M learners across the globe joined us in an online class, workshop, or event last year.

So what does it mean to be a part of an online community? In each city, we bring together our two greatest tools: innovative remote learning formats and GA’s network of local hiring partners. Students can sign up for any of our best-in-class courses from the comfort of home, while taking advantage of GA-facilitated local programming and city-specific networking events designed to connect seasoned professionals and aspiring career changers. Meanwhile, GA is also building relationships with local hiring partners in each city, to connect the dots between employer hiring needs and the job-ready tech talent graduating from our programs. 

We already have an exciting slate of upcoming events and partners on board in these new online communities, and look forward to continuing what we do best: helping learners across the globe pursue work they love.

Top 5 JavaScript Interview Questions


JavaScript is one of the most popular programming languages. Even though there are many JavaScript-based frameworks like React.js and Node.js, the ability to answer some core JavaScript questions will always give you an upper hand during a coding interview.

So, let’s start with the top 5 JavaScript interview questions!

1. What is hoisting?

Hoisting is a default process wherein JavaScript moves all the declarations to the top of the current scope.


console.log(a) // 20
var a;

Even though the JavaScript variable a is initialized and accessed before it’s declared, JavaScript doesn’t throw an error.

2. What is the purpose of closures?

As per MDN Web Docs,

“Closure is the combination of a function bundled together (enclosed) with references to its surrounding state (the lexical environment).” 

In simple terms, Closure is under functional programming, and it allows an inner function to access an outer function’s scope, even when the outer function has already returned.


const cartMode = function() {
    let items=[] // acts like a private variable
    function addItem(item) {
       return "Item added to Cart"

    function totalItems() {
      return items.length

    return {


const cart=cartMode()
cart.addItem("Bag") // returns Item added to Cart
console.log(cart.items) // returns undefined
cart.totatItems() // returns 1

In the above example, the items variable is accessible to all the inner functions, but it’s not directly accessible from outside. This happens because of closures

3. What is the difference between let, const, and var?

Before ES6, JS had no way to support block-level scope variables. Now, we have:

  • var for creating function-level scope variables.
  • let for creating dynamic block-level scope variables.
  • const for creating constant block-level scope variables.


var a = 20

if(a > 10) {
  let b = 1
  const a = 2

  console.log(b,a, 'Inner Scope')   // 1 2 Inner Scope

console.log(a, 'Outer Scope')   // 20 Outer Scope

4. What is the output of the following code?




Even though we specified the delay as 0ms, it still prints “2” after “3.” This is because of the Event Loop in JavaScript. 

In this case, first, console.log(“1”) is executed, then setTimeout() is executed; after the specified delay (in this case, 0ms), the callback function is added to Message Queue. Now the main thread only picks up items from the message queue once the current execution is done. So, the main thread first evaluates the console.log(“3”) statement post. Then, it picks up the callback() from the Queue and executes the console.log(“2”) statement. Hence, the above output.

5. The Difference between arrow functions and regular functions?

Arrow functions are new ES6 syntax for defining functions. It looks like this:

const add = (a,b) => a+b
add(2,3) // 5 

The main difference between the arrow function and the regular function is the value of this keyword.

In the case of arrow functions, the keyword assigns a value lexically. What this means is unlike regular functions, arrow functions never create their own execution context. They, by default, take the execution context of the enclosing function, aka, parent. 

Here is another great article explaining this in-depth. 


Preparing for JavaScript Interviews can feel overwhelming, but you now know the JavaScript code, the programming language, and the scripting language; the only way to really answer an advanced JavaScript interview question is to examine things one concept at a time

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