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A cross-platform front-end framework, AngularJS expands HTML’s capabilities to help power dynamic web applications.
An API, or application programming interface, is a set of rules that determine how programs can interact with one another. These rules allow programmers to design their programs to work together to do more than either program could do separately.
Calvin Tan, a Front-End Web Development instructor at General Assembly Singapore, says, “CSS, which stands for Cascading Style Sheets, is the language that sets the appearance of a website, including its fonts, color, and layout. It is a companion to the HTML language: HTML provides the content of a website, and CSS enhances the styling of the HTML content. Besides being used to create visually engaging websites, CSS is often used to enhance the aesthetics of user interfaces for web and mobile applications.
"In General Assembly’s part-time Front-End Web Development (FEWD) course, our full-time Web Development Immersive course, and our online HTML, CSS & Web Design course, students learn how to write CSS syntax and link it effectively with HTML files. We also break down the most commonly used CSS properties, such as styling of text and background images. Students learn how to style multiple elements or a smaller group of elements through the use of classes, IDs, advanced selectors, and pseudo-selectors, and delve into creating layouts by using margins and paddings, floats, and positioning using flexbox. By the end of these courses, students are equipped with a firm understanding of CSS and the ability to create a visually appealing, interactive website that responds to various mobile or tablet devices."
“In General Assembly’s full-time Web Development Immersive and part-time Front-End Web Development courses, students learn DOM by visiting jQuery-enabled websites like CSS-Tricks and using the console to alter the pages in front of them. Changing all of the titles to some goofy text gives students a sample of the power of this tool. Students also dive into and read the jQuery documentation to find out about the most useful DOM manipulation methods.”
Read “A Beginner’s Guide to DOM Manipulation” by Cory Fauver.
Helpful for building web APIs, web apps, and more, the open-source Express framework was designed for use in the Node.js development environment.
A go-to tool for collaboration, Git is an open-source version control program. By tracking changes and preserving file histories, it helps developers collaborate on coding projects without overwriting one another’s progress.
Using the cloud-based GitHub platform, developers can manage Git repositories, share and review code, and even host open-source projects.
Heroku is a cloud-based platform for building and deploying web applications. Its ability to support Ruby, Python, Java, and more makes it a popular choice among developers.
The latest version of Hypertext Markup Language expands its capabilities, offering cleaner code, mobile browser considerations, and support for video and audio content that previously required third-party APIs.
A bedrock of digital communication, the Hypertext Transfer Protocol — commonly known as HTTP — allows web pages (and other text data) to be transferred over the internet, forming the foundation of the World Wide Web.
MongoDB is a document-oriented NoSQL database program. Its advantages include scalability, dynamic querying, and the ability to handle a variety of data structures. Developers often pair it with Express to create efficient server-side applications.
Model-View-Controller, or MVC, is a framework for structuring logical, scalable applications. This framework separates application responsibilities into one of three categories: managing data (model), creating responses for the user (view), and handling top-level application logic (controller).
NoSQL (Not Only SQL) refers to the category of databases that use some other kind of architecture than tables and rows for storing and manipulating data. Generally they are less structured than relational (SQL) databases, trading off some rigor and reliability for greater flexibility and speed.
Danny Kirschner, a Web Development Immersive instructor at General Assembly's Providence and Boston campuses, says, “Ruby on Rails, commonly known as Rails, is a server-side framework that helps developers build modern web applications. It is written in the Ruby programming language and makes programming web applications easier by making certain assumptions about what every developer needs in order to get their application up and running. As an open-source software, anyone can view, edit, and contribute to the source code. Rails is an opinionated software designed for developer happiness and to help small and large companies launch fast, affordable, production-ready applications.
“In General Assembly’s Web Development Immersive and Web Development Immersive Remote, we introduce Rails as a modern web application framework. Developers utilize Rails to act as the back-end server for their full-stack applications. This means students learn to use Rails as the application programming interface, or API, with the ability to handle incoming requests, model and validate data, communicate with the database, and send data back in a response. By learning how to build web applications using Ruby on Rails, new developers gain experience creating and consuming APIs.”
A popular resource for developers, the ReactJS library — developed by Facebook — helps developers to easily build nimble, flexible user interfaces through its modular component-based architecture. React has helped usher in a paradigm shift in front-end web development thanks to its speed and use of declarative programming.
Developers turn to Ruby to tackle a variety of programming tasks, favoring this object-oriented programming language for its easy-to-read syntax and usability. It’s typically paired with the Rails web application framework.
Michael Larner, a Data Analytics instructor at General Assembly Los Angeles, says, "Put simply, SQL is the language of data — it’s a programming language that enables us to efficiently create, alter, request, and aggregate data from those mysterious things called databases. It gives us the ability to make connections between different pieces of information, even when we’re dealing with huge data sets. Modern applications are able to use SQL to deliver really valuable pieces of information that would otherwise be difficult for humans to keep track of independently. In fact, pretty much every app that stores any sort of information uses a database. This ubiquity means that developers use SQL to log, record, alter, and present data within the application, while analysts use SQL to interrogate that same data set in order to find deeper insights.
"At General Assembly, we know businesses are striving to transform their data from raw facts into actionable insights. To accomplish this, we give students the opportunity to use SQL to explore real-world data such as Firefox usage statistics, Iowa liquor sales, or Zillow’s real estate prices. Our full-time Data Science Immersive and part-time Data Analytics courses help students build the analytical skills needed to turn the results of those queries into clear and effective business recommendations. On a more introductory level, after just a couple of hours of in one of our SQL workshops, students are able to query multiple data sets with millions of rows."